https://docs.espressif.com/projects/esp-idf/en/latest/esp32/api-reference/protocols/modbus.html | BingShi

https://docs.espressif.com/projects/esp-idf/en/latest/esp32/api-reference/protocols/modbus.html

ESP-Modbus

Overview

The Modbus serial communication protocol is de facto standard protocol widely used to connect industrial electronic devices. Modbus allows communication among many devices connected to the same network, for example, a system that measures temperature and humidity and communicates the results to a computer. The Modbus protocol uses several types of data: Holding Registers, Input Registers, Coils (single bit output), Discrete Inputs. Versions of the Modbus protocol exist for serial port and for Ethernet and other protocols that support the Internet protocol suite. There are many variants of Modbus protocols, some of them are:

  • Modbus RTU — This is used in serial communication and makes use of a compact, binary representation of the data for protocol communication. The RTU format follows the commands/data with a cyclic redundancy check checksum as an error check mechanism to ensure the reliability of data. Modbus RTU is the most common implementation available for Modbus. A Modbus RTU message must be transmitted continuously without inter-character hesitations. Modbus messages are framed (separated) by idle (silent) periods. The RS-485 interface communication is usually used for this type.

  • Modbus ASCII — This is used in serial communication and makes use of ASCII characters for protocol communication. The ASCII format uses a longitudinal redundancy check checksum. Modbus ASCII messages are framed by leading colon (“:”) and trailing newline (CR/LF).

  • Modbus TCP/IP or Modbus TCP — This is a Modbus variant used for communications over TCP/IP networks, connecting over port 502. It does not require a checksum calculation, as lower layers already provide checksum protection.

The following document (and included code snippets) requires some familiarity with the Modbus protocol. Refer to the Modbus Organization’s with protocol specifications for specifics.

Messaging Model And Data Mapping

Modbus is an application protocol that defines rules for messaging structure and data organization that are independent of the data transmission medium. Traditional serial Modbus is a register-based protocol that defines message transactions that occur between master(s) and slave devices (multiple masters are allowed on using Modbus TCP/IP). The slave devices listen for communication from the master and simply respond as instructed. The master(s) always controls communication and may communicate directly to one slave, or all connected slaves, but the slaves cannot communicate directly with each other.

Modbus segment diagram

Modbus segment diagram

Note

It is assumed that the number of slaves and their register maps are known by the Modbus master before the start of stack.

The register map of each slave device is usually part of its device manual. A Slave device usually permits configuration of its short slave address and communication options that are used within the device’s network segment.

The Modbus protocol allows devices to map data to four types of registers (Holding, Input, Discrete, Coil). The figure below illustrates an example mapping of a device’s data to the four types of registers.

Modbus data mapping

Modbus data mapping

The following sections give an overview of how to use the ESP_Modbus component found under components/freemodbus. The sections cover initialization of a Modbus port, and the setup a master or slave device accordingly:

Modbus Port Initialization

The ESP_Modbus supports Modbus SERIAL and TCP ports and a port must be initialized before calling any other Modbus API. The functions below are used to create and then initialize Modbus controller interface (either master or slave) over a particular transmission medium (either Serial or TCP/IP):

The API call uses the first parameter to recognize the type of port being initialized. Supported enumeration for different ports: MB_PORT_SERIAL_MASTER, MB_PORT_SERIAL_SLAVE accordingly. The parameters MB_PORT_TCP_MASTER, MB_PORT_TCP_SLAVE are reserved for internal usage.

void* master_handler = NULL; // Pointer to allocate interface structure
// Initialization of Modbus master for serial port
esp_err_t err = mbc_master_init(MB_PORT_SERIAL_MASTER, &master_handler);
if (master_handler == NULL || err != ESP_OK) {
    ESP_LOGE(TAG, "mb controller initialization fail.");
}

This example code to initialize slave port:

void* slave_handler = NULL; // Pointer to allocate interface structure
// Initialization of Modbus slave for TCP
esp_err_t err = mbc_slave_init_tcp(&slave_handler);
if (slave_handler == NULL || err != ESP_OK) {
    // Error handling is performed here
    ESP_LOGE(TAG, "mb controller initialization fail.");
}

Modbus Master API Overview

The following overview describes how to setup Modbus master communication. The overview reflects a typical programming workflow and is broken down into the sections provided below:

  1. Modbus Port Initialization - Initialization of Modbus controller interface for the selected port.

  2. Configuring Master Data Access - Configure data descriptors to access slave parameters.

  3. Master Communication Options - Allows to setup communication options for selected port.

  4. Master Communication - Start stack and sending / receiving data.

  5. Modbus Master Teardown - Destroy Modbus controller and its resources.

Configuring Master Data Access

The architectural approach of ESP_Modbus includes one level above standard Modbus IO driver. The additional layer is called Modbus controller and its goal is to add an abstraction such as CID - characteristic identifier. The CID is linked to a corresponding Modbus registers through the table called Data Dictionary and represents device physical parameter (such as temperature, humidity, etc.) in specific Modbus slave device. This approach allows the upper layer (e.g., MESH or MQTT) to be isolated from Modbus specifics thus simplify Modbus integration with other protocols/networks.

The Data Dictionary is the list in the Modbus master which shall be defined by user to link each CID to its corresponding Modbus registers representation using Register Mapping table of the Modbus slave being used. Each element in this data dictionary is of type mb_parameter_descriptor_t and represents the description of one physical characteristic:

Table 1 Modbus master Data Dictionary description

Field

Description

Detailed information

cid

Characteristic ID

The identifier of characteristic (must be unique).

param_key

Characteristic Name

String description of the characteristic.

param_units

Characteristic Units

Physical Units of the characteristic.

mb_slave_addr

Modbus Slave Address

The short address of the device with correspond parameter UID.

mb_param_type

Modbus Register Type

Type of Modbus register area. MB_PARAM_INPUT, MB_PARAM_HOLDING, MB_PARAM_COIL, MB_PARAM_DISCRETE - represents Input , Holding, Coil and Discrete input register area accordingly;

mb_reg_start

Modbus Register Start

Relative register address of the characteristic in the register area.

mb_size

Modbus Register Size

Length of characteristic in registers.

param_offset

Instance Offset

Offset to instance of the characteristic in bytes. It is used to calculate the absolute address to the characteristic in the storage structure. It is optional field and can be set to zero if the parameter is not used in the application.

param_type

Data Type

Specifies type of the characteristic. PARAM_TYPE_U8, PARAM_TYPE_U16, PARAM_TYPE_U32 - Unsigned integer 8/16/32 bit type; PARAM_TYPE_FLOAT - IEEE754 floating point format; PARAM_TYPE_ASCII - ASCII string or binary data;

param_size

Data Size

The storage size of the characteristic (bytes).

param_opts

Parameter Options

Limits, options of characteristic used during processing of alarm in user application (optional)

access

Parameter access type

Can be used in user application to define the behavior of the characteristic during processing of data in user application; PAR_PERMS_READ_WRITE_TRIGGER, PAR_PERMS_READ, PAR_PERMS_READ_WRITE_TRIGGER;

Note

The cid and param_key have to be unique. Please use the prefix to the parameter key if you have several similar parameters in your register map table.

Table 2 Example Register mapping table of Modbus slave

CID

Register

Length

Range

Type

Units

Description

0

30000

4

MAX_UINT

U32

Not defined

Serial number of device (4 bytes) read-only

1

30002

2

MAX_UINT

U16

Not defined

Software version (4 bytes) read-only

2

40000

4

-20..40

FLOAT

DegC

Room temperature in DegC. Writing a temperature value to this register for single point calibration.

// Enumeration of modbus slave addresses accessed by master device
enum {
    MB_DEVICE_ADDR1 = 1,
    MB_DEVICE_ADDR2,
    MB_SLAVE_COUNT
};

// Enumeration of all supported CIDs for device
enum {
    CID_SER_NUM1 = 0,
    CID_SW_VER1,
    CID_TEMP_DATA_1,
    CID_SER_NUM2,
    CID_SW_VER2,
    CID_TEMP_DATA_2
};

// Example Data Dictionary for Modbus parameters in 2 slaves in the segment
mb_parameter_descriptor_t device_parameters[] = {
    // CID, Name, Units, Modbus addr, register type, Modbus Reg Start Addr, Modbus Reg read length,
    // Instance offset (NA), Instance type, Instance length (bytes), Options (NA), Permissions
    { CID_SER_NUM1, STR("Serial_number_1"), STR("--"), MB_DEVICE_ADDR1, MB_PARAM_INPUT, 0, 2,
                    0, PARAM_TYPE_U32, 4, OPTS( 0,0,0 ), PAR_PERMS_READ_WRITE_TRIGGER },
    { CID_SW_VER1, STR("Software_version_1"), STR("--"), MB_DEVICE_ADDR1, MB_PARAM_INPUT, 2, 1,
                    0, PARAM_TYPE_U16, 2, OPTS( 0,0,0 ), PAR_PERMS_READ_WRITE_TRIGGER },
    { CID_TEMP_DATA_1, STR("Temperature_1"), STR("C"), MB_DEVICE_ADDR1, MB_PARAM_HOLDING, 0, 2,
                    0, PARAM_TYPE_FLOAT, 4, OPTS( 16, 30, 1 ), PAR_PERMS_READ_WRITE_TRIGGER },
    { CID_SER_NUM2, STR("Serial_number_2"), STR("--"), MB_DEVICE_ADDR2, MB_PARAM_INPUT, 0, 2,
                    0, PARAM_TYPE_U32, 4, OPTS( 0,0,0 ), PAR_PERMS_READ_WRITE_TRIGGER },
    { CID_SW_VER2, STR("Software_version_2"), STR("--"), MB_DEVICE_ADDR2, MB_PARAM_INPUT, 2, 1,
                    0, PARAM_TYPE_U16, 2, OPTS( 0,0,0 ), PAR_PERMS_READ_WRITE_TRIGGER },
    { CID_TEMP_DATA_2, STR("Temperature_2"), STR("C"), MB_DEVICE_ADDR2, MB_PARAM_HOLDING, 0, 2,
                    0, PARAM_TYPE_FLOAT, 4, OPTS( 20, 30, 1 ), PAR_PERMS_READ_WRITE_TRIGGER },
};
// Calculate number of parameters in the table
uint16_t num_device_parameters = (sizeof(device_parameters) / sizeof(device_parameters[0]));

During initialization of the Modbus stack, a pointer to the Data Dictionary (called descriptor) must be provided as the parameter of the function below.

mbc_master_set_descriptor(): Initialization of master descriptor.

ESP_ERROR_CHECK(mbc_master_set_descriptor(&device_parameters[0], num_device_parameters));

The Data Dictionary can be initialized from SD card, MQTT or other source before start of stack. Once the initialization and setup is done, the Modbus controller allows the reading of complex parameters from any slave included in descriptor table using its CID.

Master Communication Options

Calling the setup function allows for specific communication options to be defined for port.

mbc_master_setup()

The communication structure provided as a parameter is different for serial and TCP communication mode.

Example setup for serial port:

mb_communication_info_t comm_info = {
    .port = MB_PORT_NUM,        // Serial port number
    .mode = MB_MODE_RTU,        // Modbus mode of communication (MB_MODE_RTU or MB_MODE_ASCII)
    .baudrate = 9600,           // Modbus communication baud rate
    .parity = MB_PARITY_NONE    // parity option for serial port
};

ESP_ERROR_CHECK(mbc_master_setup((void*)&comm_info));

Modbus master TCP port requires additional definition of IP address table where number of addresses should be equal to number of unique slave addresses in master Modbus Data Dictionary:

The order of IP address string corresponds to short slave address in the Data Dictionary.

#define MB_SLAVE_COUNT 2 // Number of slaves in the segment being accessed (as defined in Data Dictionary)

char* slave_ip_address_table[MB_SLAVE_COUNT] = {
    "192.168.1.2",     // Address corresponds to UID1 and set to predefined value by user
    "192.168.1.3",     // corresponds to UID2 in the segment
    NULL               // end of table
};

mb_communication_info_t comm_info = {
    .ip_port = MB_TCP_PORT,                    // Modbus TCP port number (default = 502)
    .ip_addr_type = MB_IPV4,                   // version of IP protocol
    .ip_mode = MB_MODE_TCP,                    // Port communication mode
    .ip_addr = (void*)slave_ip_address_table,  // assign table of IP addresses
    .ip_netif_ptr = esp_netif_ptr              // esp_netif_ptr pointer to the corresponding network interface
};

ESP_ERROR_CHECK(mbc_master_setup((void*)&comm_info));

Note

Refer to esp_netif component for more information about network interface initialization.

The slave IP addresses in the table can be assigned automatically using mDNS service as described in the example. Refer to protocols/modbus/tcp/mb_tcp_master for more information.

Note

RS485 communication requires call to UART specific APIs to setup communication mode and pins. Refer to Running UART Communication section of UART documentation.

Master Communication

The starting of the Modbus controller is the final step in enabling communication. This is performed using function below:

mbc_master_start()

esp_err_t err = mbc_master_start();
if (err != ESP_OK) {
    ESP_LOGE(TAG, "mb controller start fail, err=%x.", err);
}

The list of functions below are used by the Modbus master stack from a user’s application:

mbc_master_send_request(): This function executes a blocking Modbus request. The master sends a data request (as defined in parameter request structure mb_param_request_t) and then blocks until a response from corresponding slave and returns the status of command execution. This function provides a standard way for read/write access to Modbus devices in the network.

mbc_master_get_cid_info(): The function gets information about each characteristic supported in the data dictionary and returns the characteristic’s description in the form of the mb_parameter_descriptor_t structure. Each characteristic is accessed using its CID.

mbc_master_get_parameter(): The function reads the data of a characteristic defined in the parameters of a Modbus slave device. The additional data for request is taken from parameter description table.

Example:

const mb_parameter_descriptor_t* param_descriptor = NULL;
uint8_t temp_data[4] = {0}; // temporary buffer to hold maximum CID size
uint8_t type = 0;
....

// Get the information for characteristic cid from data dictionary
esp_err_t err = mbc_master_get_cid_info(cid, &param_descriptor);
if ((err != ESP_ERR_NOT_FOUND) && (param_descriptor != NULL)) {
    err = mbc_master_get_parameter(param_descriptor->cid, (char*)param_descriptor->param_key, (uint8_t*)temp_data, &type);
    if (err == ESP_OK) {
        ESP_LOGI(TAG, "Characteristic #%d %s (%s) value = (0x%08x) read successful.",
                         param_descriptor->cid,
                         (char*)param_descriptor->param_key,
                         (char*)param_descriptor->param_units,
                         *(uint32_t*)temp_data);
    } else {
        ESP_LOGE(TAG, "Characteristic #%d (%s) read fail, err = 0x%x (%s).",
                        param_descriptor->cid,
                        (char*)param_descriptor->param_key,
                        (int)err,
                        (char*)esp_err_to_name(err));
    }
} else {
    ESP_LOGE(TAG, "Could not get information for characteristic %d.", cid);
}

mbc_master_set_parameter()

The function writes characteristic’s value defined as a name and cid parameter in corresponded slave device. The additional data for parameter request is taken from master parameter description table.

uint8_t type = 0; // Type of parameter
uint8_t temp_data[4] = {0}; // temporary buffer

esp_err_t err = mbc_master_set_parameter(CID_TEMP_DATA_2, "Temperature_2", (uint8_t*)temp_data, &type);
if (err == ESP_OK) {
    ESP_LOGI(TAG, "Set parameter data successfully.");
} else {
    ESP_LOGE(TAG, "Set data fail, err = 0x%x (%s).", (int)err, (char*)esp_err_to_name(err));
}

Modbus Master Teardown

This function stops Modbus communication stack and destroys controller interface and free all used active objects.

mbc_master_destroy()

ESP_ERROR_CHECK(mbc_master_destroy());

Modbus Slave API Overview

The sections below represent typical programming workflow for the slave API which should be called in following order:

  1. Modbus Port Initialization - Initialization of Modbus controller interface for the selected port.

  2. Configuring Slave Data Access - Configure data descriptors to access slave parameters.

  3. Slave Communication Options - Allows to setup communication options for selected port.

  4. Slave Communication - Start stack and sending / receiving data. Filter events when master accesses the register areas.

  5. Modbus Slave Teardown - Destroy Modbus controller and its resources.

Configuring Slave Data Access

The following functions must be called when the Modbus controller slave port is already initialized. Refer to Modbus Port Initialization.

The slave stack requires the user to define structures (memory storage areas) that store the Modbus parameters accessed by stack. These structures should be prepared by the user and be assigned to the Modbus controller interface using mbc_slave_set_descriptor() API call before the start of communication. The slave task can call the mbc_slave_check_event() function which will block until the Modbus master access the slave. The slave task can then get information about the data being accessed.

Note

One slave can define several area descriptors per each type of Modbus register area with different start_offset.

Register area is defined by using the mb_register_area_descriptor_t structure.

Table 3 Modbus register area descriptor

Field

Description

start_offset

Zero based register relative offset for defined register area. Example: register address = 40002 ( 4x register area - Function 3 - holding register ), start_offset = 2

type

Type of the Modbus register area. Refer to mb_param_type_t for more information.

address

A pointer to the memory area which is used to store the register data for this area descriptor.

size

The size of the memory area in bytes which is used to store register data.

mbc_slave_set_descriptor()

The function initializes Modbus communication descriptors for each type of Modbus register area (Holding Registers, Input Registers, Coils (single bit output), Discrete Inputs). Once areas are initialized and the mbc_slave_start() API is called the Modbus stack can access the data in user data structures by request from master.

#define MB_REG_INPUT_START_AREA0    (0)
#define MB_REG_HOLDING_START_AREA0  (0)
#define MB_REG_HOLD_CNT             (100)
#define MB_REG_INPUT_CNT            (100)

mb_register_area_descriptor_t reg_area; // Modbus register area descriptor structure
unit16_t holding_reg_area[MB_REG_HOLD_CNT] = {0}; // storage area for holding registers
unit16_t input_reg_area[MB_REG_INPUT_CNT] = {0}; // storage area for input registers

reg_area.type = MB_PARAM_HOLDING;                               // Set type of register area
reg_area.start_offset = MB_REG_HOLDING_START_AREA0;             // Offset of register area in Modbus protocol
reg_area.address = (void*)&holding_reg_area[0];                 // Set pointer to storage instance
reg_area.size = sizeof(holding_reg_area) << 1;                  // Set the size of register storage area in bytes
ESP_ERROR_CHECK(mbc_slave_set_descriptor(reg_area));

reg_area.type = MB_PARAM_INPUT;
reg_area.start_offset = MB_REG_INPUT_START_AREA0;
reg_area.address = (void*)&input_reg_area[0];
reg_area.size = sizeof(input_reg_area) << 1;
ESP_ERROR_CHECK(mbc_slave_set_descriptor(reg_area));

At least one area descriptor per each Modbus register type must be set in order to provide register access to its area. If the master tries to access an undefined area, the stack will generate a Modbus exception.

Direct access to register area from user application must be protected by critical section:

portENTER_CRITICAL(&param_lock);
holding_reg_area[2] += 10;
portEXIT_CRITICAL(&param_lock);

Slave Communication Options

The function initializes the Modbus controller interface and its active context (tasks, RTOS objects and other resources).

mbc_slave_setup()

The function is used to setup communication parameters of the Modbus stack.

Example initialization of Modbus TCP communication:

esp_netif_init();
...

mb_communication_info_t comm_info = {
    .ip_port = MB_TCP_PORT,                    // Modbus TCP port number (default = 502)
    .ip_addr_type = MB_IPV4,                   // version of IP protocol
    .ip_mode = MB_MODE_TCP,                    // Port communication mode
    .ip_addr = NULL,                           // This field keeps the client IP address to bind, NULL - bind to any client
    .ip_netif_ptr = esp_netif_ptr              // esp_netif_ptr - pointer to the corresponding network interface
};

// Setup communication parameters and start stack
ESP_ERROR_CHECK(mbc_slave_setup((void*)&comm_info));

Example initialization of Modbus serial communication:

#define MB_SLAVE_DEV_SPEED 9600
#define MB_SLAVE_ADDR 1
#define MB_SLAVE_PORT_NUM 2
...

// Setup communication parameters and start stack
mb_communication_info_t comm_info = {
    .mode = MB_MODE_RTU,                    // Communication type
    .slave_addr = MB_SLAVE_ADDR,            // Short address of the slave
    .port = MB_SLAVE_PORT_NUM,              // UART physical port number
    .baudrate = MB_SLAVE_DEV_SPEED,         // Baud rate for communication
    .parity = MB_PARITY_NONE                // Parity option
};

ESP_ERROR_CHECK(mbc_slave_setup((void*)&comm_info));

Slave Communication

The function below is used to start Modbus controller interface and allows communication.

mbc_slave_start()

ESP_ERROR_CHECK(mbc_slave_start());

mbc_slave_check_event()

The blocking call to function waits for a event specified (represented as an event mask parameter). Once the master accesses the parameter and the event mask matches the parameter type, the application task will be unblocked and function will return the corresponding event mb_event_group_t which describes the type of register access being done.

mbc_slave_get_param_info()

The function gets information about accessed parameters from the Modbus controller event queue. The KConfig CONFIG_FMB_CONTROLLER_NOTIFY_QUEUE_SIZE key can be used to configure the notification queue size. The timeout parameter allows a timeout to be specified when waiting for a notification. The mb_param_info_t structure contains information about accessed parameter.

Table 4 Description of the register info structure: mb_param_info_t

Field

Description

time_stamp

the time stamp of the event when defined parameter is accessed

mb_offset

start Modbus register accessed by master

type

type of the Modbus register area being accessed (See the mb_event_group_t for more information)

address

memory address that corresponds to accessed register in defined area descriptor

size

number of registers being accessed by master

Example to get event when holding or input registers accessed in the slave:

#define MB_READ_MASK            (MB_EVENT_INPUT_REG_RD | MB_EVENT_HOLDING_REG_RD)
#define MB_WRITE_MASK           (MB_EVENT_HOLDING_REG_WR)
#define MB_READ_WRITE_MASK      (MB_READ_MASK | MB_WRITE_MASK)
#define MB_PAR_INFO_GET_TOUT    (10 / portTICK_RATE_MS)
....

// The function blocks while waiting for register access
mb_event_group_t event = mbc_slave_check_event(MB_READ_WRITE_MASK);

// Get information about data accessed from master
ESP_ERROR_CHECK(mbc_slave_get_param_info(&reg_info, MB_PAR_INFO_GET_TOUT));
const char* rw_str = (event & MB_READ_MASK) ? "READ" : "WRITE";

// Filter events and process them accordingly
if (event & (MB_EVENT_HOLDING_REG_WR | MB_EVENT_HOLDING_REG_RD)) {
    ESP_LOGI(TAG, "HOLDING %s (%u us), ADDR:%u, TYPE:%u, INST_ADDR:0x%.4x, SIZE:%u",
                rw_str,
                (uint32_t)reg_info.time_stamp,
                (uint32_t)reg_info.mb_offset,
                (uint32_t)reg_info.type,
                (uint32_t)reg_info.address,
                (uint32_t)reg_info.size);
} else if (event & (MB_EVENT_INPUT_REG_RD)) {
    ESP_LOGI(TAG, "INPUT %s (%u us), ADDR:%u, TYPE:%u, INST_ADDR:0x%.4x, SIZE:%u",
                rw_str,
                (uint32_t)reg_info.time_stamp,
                (uint32_t)reg_info.mb_offset,
                (uint32_t)reg_info.type,
                (uint32_t)reg_info.address,
                (uint32_t)reg_info.size);
}

Modbus Slave Teardown

This function stops the Modbus communication stack, destroys the controller interface, and frees all used active objects allocated for the slave.

mbc_slave_destroy()

ESP_ERROR_CHECK(mbc_slave_destroy());

Possible Communication Issues And Solutions

If the examples do not work as expected and slave and master boards are not able to communicate correctly, it is possible to find the reason for errors. The most important errors are described in master example output and formatted as below:

E (1692332) MB_CONTROLLER_MASTER: mbc_master_get_parameter(111): SERIAL master get parameter failure error=(0x107) (ESP_ERR_TIMEOUT).
Table 5 Modbus error codes and troubleshooting

Error

Description

Possible solution

0x106

ESP_ERR_NOT_SUPPORTED - Invalid register request - slave returned an exception because the requested register is not supported.

Refer to slave register map. Check the master data dictionary for correctness.

0x107

ESP_ERR_TIMEOUT - Slave response timeout - Modbus slave did not send response during configured slave response timeout.

Measure and increase the maximum slave response timeout idf.py menuconfig, option CONFIG_FMB_MASTER_TIMEOUT_MS_RESPOND. Check physical connection or network configuration and make sure that the slave response can reach the master side. If the application has some high performance tasks with higher priority than CONFIG_FMB_PORT_TASK_PRIO it is recommended to place Modbus tasks on the other core using an option CONFIG_FMB_PORT_TASK_AFFINITY. Configure the Modbus task’s priority CONFIG_FMB_PORT_TASK_PRIO to ensure that the task gets sufficient processing time to handle Modbus stack events.

0x108

ESP_ERR_INVALID_RESPONSE - Received unsupported response from slave or frame check failure. Master can not execute command handler because the command is either not supported or is incorrect.

Check the physical connection then refer to register map of your slave to configure the master data dictionary properly.

0x103

ESP_ERR_INVALID_STATE - Critical failure or FSM sequence failure or master FSM is busy processing previous request.

Make sure your physical connection is working properly. Increase task stack size and check Modbus initialization sequence.

Application Example

The examples below use the FreeModbus library port for serial TCP slave and master implementations accordingly. The selection of stack is performed through KConfig menu option “Enable Modbus stack support …” for appropriate communication mode and related configuration keys.

Please refer to the specific example README.md for details.

Protocol References

  • https://modbus.org/specs.php: Modbus Organization with protocol specifications.

API Reference

Unions

union mb_communication_info_t
#include <esp_modbus_common.h>

Device communication structure to setup Modbus controller.

Public Members

mb_mode_type_t mode

Modbus communication mode

uint8_t slave_addr

Modbus slave address field (dummy for master)

uart_port_t port

Modbus communication port (UART) number

uint32_t baudrate

Modbus baudrate

uart_parity_t parity

Modbus UART parity settings

uint16_t dummy_port

Dummy field, unused

struct mb_communication_info_t::[anonymous] [anonymous]
mb_mode_type_t ip_mode

Modbus communication mode

uint16_t ip_port

Modbus port

mb_tcp_addr_type_t ip_addr_type

Modbus address type

void *ip_addr

Modbus address table for connection

void *ip_netif_ptr

Modbus network interface

struct mb_communication_info_t::[anonymous] [anonymous]

Macros

MB_CONTROLLER_STACK_SIZE
MB_CONTROLLER_PRIORITY
MB_DEVICE_ADDRESS
MB_DEVICE_SPEED
MB_UART_PORT
MB_PAR_INFO_TOUT
MB_PARITY_NONE
_XFER_4_RD(dst, src)
_XFER_2_RD(dst, src)
_XFER_4_WR(dst, src)
_XFER_2_WR(dst, src)

Type Definitions

typedef esp_err_t (*iface_init)(void **)

common interface method typesInterface method init

typedef esp_err_t (*iface_destroy)(void)

Interface method destroy

typedef esp_err_t (*iface_setup)(void *)

Interface method setup

typedef esp_err_t (*iface_start)(void)

Interface method start

Enumerations

enum mb_port_type_t

Types of actual Modbus implementation.

Values:

MB_PORT_SERIAL_MASTER = 0x00

Modbus port type serial master.

MB_PORT_SERIAL_SLAVE

Modbus port type serial slave.

MB_PORT_TCP_MASTER

Modbus port type TCP master.

MB_PORT_TCP_SLAVE

Modbus port type TCP slave.

MB_PORT_COUNT

Modbus port count.

MB_PORT_INACTIVE = 0xFF
enum mb_event_group_t

Event group for parameters notification.

Values:

MB_EVENT_NO_EVENTS = 0x00
MB_EVENT_HOLDING_REG_WR = BIT0

Modbus Event Write Holding registers.

MB_EVENT_HOLDING_REG_RD = BIT1

Modbus Event Read Holding registers.

MB_EVENT_INPUT_REG_RD = BIT3

Modbus Event Read Input registers.

MB_EVENT_COILS_WR = BIT4

Modbus Event Write Coils.

MB_EVENT_COILS_RD = BIT5

Modbus Event Read Coils.

MB_EVENT_DISCRETE_RD = BIT6

Modbus Event Read Discrete bits.

MB_EVENT_STACK_STARTED = BIT7

Modbus Event Stack started

enum mb_param_type_t

Type of Modbus parameter.

Values:

MB_PARAM_HOLDING = 0x00

Modbus Holding register.

MB_PARAM_INPUT

Modbus Input register.

MB_PARAM_COIL

Modbus Coils.

MB_PARAM_DISCRETE

Modbus Discrete bits.

MB_PARAM_COUNT
MB_PARAM_UNKNOWN = 0xFF
enum mb_mode_type_t

Modbus serial transmission modes (RTU/ASCII).

Values:

MB_MODE_RTU

RTU transmission mode.

MB_MODE_ASCII

ASCII transmission mode.

MB_MODE_TCP

TCP communication mode.

MB_MODE_UDP

UDP communication mode.

enum mb_tcp_addr_type_t

Modbus TCP type of address.

Values:

MB_IPV4 = 0

TCP IPV4 addressing

MB_IPV6 = 1

TCP IPV6 addressing

Functions

esp_err_t mbc_master_init_tcp(void **handler)

Initialize Modbus controller and stack for TCP port.

Return

  • ESP_OK Success

  • ESP_ERR_NO_MEM Parameter error

  • ESP_ERR_NOT_SUPPORTED Port type not supported

  • ESP_ERR_INVALID_STATE Initialization failure

Parameters
  • [out] handler: handler(pointer) to master data structure

esp_err_t mbc_master_init(mb_port_type_t port_type, void **handler)

Initialize Modbus Master controller and stack for Serial port.

Return

  • ESP_OK Success

  • ESP_ERR_NO_MEM Parameter error

  • ESP_ERR_NOT_SUPPORTED Port type not supported

  • ESP_ERR_INVALID_STATE Initialization failure

Parameters
  • [out] handler: handler(pointer) to master data structure

  • [in] port_type: type of stack

void mbc_master_init_iface(void *handler)

Initialize Modbus Master controller interface handle.

Parameters
  • [in] handler: - pointer to master data structure

esp_err_t mbc_master_destroy(void)

Destroy Modbus controller and stack.

Return

  • ESP_OK Success

  • ESP_ERR_INVALID_STATE Parameter error

esp_err_t mbc_master_start(void)

Start Modbus communication stack.

Return

  • ESP_OK Success

  • ESP_ERR_INVALID_ARG Modbus stack start error

esp_err_t mbc_master_setup(void *comm_info)

Set Modbus communication parameters for the controller.

Return

  • ESP_OK Success

  • ESP_ERR_INVALID_ARG Incorrect parameter data

Parameters
  • comm_info: Communication parameters structure.

esp_err_t mbc_master_set_descriptor(const mb_parameter_descriptor_t *descriptor, const uint16_t num_elements)

Assign parameter description table for Modbus controller interface.

Return

  • esp_err_t ESP_OK - set descriptor successfully

  • esp_err_t ESP_ERR_INVALID_ARG - invalid argument in function call

Parameters
  • [in] descriptor: pointer to parameter description table

  • num_elements: number of elements in the table

esp_err_t mbc_master_send_request(mb_param_request_t *request, void *data_ptr)

Send data request as defined in parameter request, waits response from slave and returns status of command execution. This function provides standard way for read/write access to Modbus devices in the network.

Return

  • esp_err_t ESP_OK - request was successful

  • esp_err_t ESP_ERR_INVALID_ARG - invalid argument of function

  • esp_err_t ESP_ERR_INVALID_RESPONSE - an invalid response from slave

  • esp_err_t ESP_ERR_TIMEOUT - operation timeout or no response from slave

  • esp_err_t ESP_ERR_NOT_SUPPORTED - the request command is not supported by slave

  • esp_err_t ESP_FAIL - slave returned an exception or other failure

Parameters
  • [in] request: pointer to request structure of type mb_param_request_t

  • [in] data_ptr: pointer to data buffer to send or received data (dependent of command field in request)

esp_err_t mbc_master_get_cid_info(uint16_t cid, const mb_parameter_descriptor_t **param_info)

Get information about supported characteristic defined as cid. Uses parameter description table to get this information. The function will check if characteristic defined as a cid parameter is supported and returns its description in param_info. Returns ESP_ERR_NOT_FOUND if characteristic is not supported.

Return

  • esp_err_t ESP_OK - request was successful and buffer contains the supported characteristic name

  • esp_err_t ESP_ERR_INVALID_ARG - invalid argument of function

  • esp_err_t ESP_ERR_NOT_FOUND - the characteristic (cid) not found

  • esp_err_t ESP_FAIL - unknown error during lookup table processing

Parameters
  • [in] cid: characteristic id

  • param_info: pointer to pointer of characteristic data.

esp_err_t mbc_master_get_parameter(uint16_t cid, char *name, uint8_t *value, uint8_t *type)

Read parameter from modbus slave device whose name is defined by name and has cid. The additional data for request is taken from parameter description (lookup) table.

Return

  • esp_err_t ESP_OK - request was successful and value buffer contains representation of actual parameter data from slave

  • esp_err_t ESP_ERR_INVALID_ARG - invalid argument of function or parameter descriptor

  • esp_err_t ESP_ERR_INVALID_RESPONSE - an invalid response from slave

  • esp_err_t ESP_ERR_INVALID_STATE - invalid state during data processing or allocation failure

  • esp_err_t ESP_ERR_TIMEOUT - operation timed out and no response from slave

  • esp_err_t ESP_ERR_NOT_SUPPORTED - the request command is not supported by slave

  • esp_err_t ESP_ERR_NOT_FOUND - the parameter is not found in the parameter description table

  • esp_err_t ESP_FAIL - slave returned an exception or other failure

Parameters
  • [in] cid: id of the characteristic for parameter

  • [in] name: pointer into string name (key) of parameter (null terminated)

  • [out] value: pointer to data buffer of parameter

  • [out] type: parameter type associated with the name returned from parameter description table.

esp_err_t mbc_master_set_parameter(uint16_t cid, char *name, uint8_t *value, uint8_t *type)

Set characteristic’s value defined as a name and cid parameter. The additional data for cid parameter request is taken from master parameter lookup table.

Return

  • esp_err_t ESP_OK - request was successful and value was saved in the slave device registers

  • esp_err_t ESP_ERR_INVALID_ARG - invalid argument of function or parameter descriptor

  • esp_err_t ESP_ERR_INVALID_RESPONSE - an invalid response from slave during processing of parameter

  • esp_err_t ESP_ERR_INVALID_STATE - invalid state during data processing or allocation failure

  • esp_err_t ESP_ERR_TIMEOUT - operation timed out and no response from slave

  • esp_err_t ESP_ERR_NOT_SUPPORTED - the request command is not supported by slave

  • esp_err_t ESP_FAIL - slave returned an exception or other failure

Parameters
  • [in] cid: id of the characteristic for parameter

  • [in] name: pointer into string name (key) of parameter (null terminated)

  • [out] value: pointer to data buffer of parameter (actual representation of json value field in binary form)

  • [out] type: pointer to parameter type associated with the name returned from parameter lookup table.

Unions

union mb_parameter_opt_t
#include <esp_modbus_master.h>

Modbus parameter options for description table.

Public Members

int opt1

Parameter option1

int opt2

Parameter option2

int opt3

Parameter option3

struct mb_parameter_opt_t::[anonymous] [anonymous]
int min

Parameter minimum value

int max

Parameter maximum value

int step

Step of parameter change tracking

struct mb_parameter_opt_t::[anonymous] [anonymous]

Structures

struct mb_parameter_descriptor_t

Characteristics descriptor type is used to describe characteristic and link it with Modbus parameters that reflect its data.

Public Members

uint16_t cid

Characteristic cid

const char *param_key

The key (name) of the parameter

const char *param_units

The physical units of the parameter

uint8_t mb_slave_addr

Slave address of device in the Modbus segment

mb_param_type_t mb_param_type

Type of modbus parameter

uint16_t mb_reg_start

This is the Modbus register address. This is the 0 based value.

uint16_t mb_size

Size of mb parameter in registers

uint16_t param_offset

Parameter name (OFFSET in the parameter structure)

mb_descr_type_t param_type

Float, U8, U16, U32, ASCII, etc.

mb_descr_size_t param_size

Number of bytes in the parameter.

mb_parameter_opt_t param_opts

Parameter options used to check limits and etc.

mb_param_perms_t access

Access permissions based on mode

struct mb_param_request_t

Modbus register request type structure.

Public Members

uint8_t slave_addr

Modbus slave address

uint8_t command

Modbus command to send

uint16_t reg_start

Modbus start register

uint16_t reg_size

Modbus number of registers

Enumerations

enum mb_descr_type_t

Modbus descriptor table parameter type defines.

Values:

PARAM_TYPE_U8 = 0x00

Unsigned 8

PARAM_TYPE_U16 = 0x01

Unsigned 16

PARAM_TYPE_U32 = 0x02

Unsigned 32

PARAM_TYPE_FLOAT = 0x03

Float type

PARAM_TYPE_ASCII = 0x04

ASCII type

enum mb_descr_size_t

Modbus descriptor table parameter size in bytes.

Values:

PARAM_SIZE_U8 = 0x01

Unsigned 8

PARAM_SIZE_U16 = 0x02

Unsigned 16

PARAM_SIZE_U32 = 0x04

Unsigned 32

PARAM_SIZE_FLOAT = 0x04

Float size

PARAM_SIZE_ASCII = 0x08

ASCII size

PARAM_SIZE_ASCII24 = 0x18

ASCII24 size

PARAM_MAX_SIZE
enum mb_param_perms_t

Permissions for the characteristics.

Values:

PAR_PERMS_READ = 1 << BIT0

the characteristic of the device are readable

PAR_PERMS_WRITE = 1 << BIT1

the characteristic of the device are writable

PAR_PERMS_TRIGGER = 1 << BIT2

the characteristic of the device are triggerable

PAR_PERMS_READ_WRITE = PAR_PERMS_READ | PAR_PERMS_WRITE

the characteristic of the device are readable & writable

PAR_PERMS_READ_TRIGGER = PAR_PERMS_READ | PAR_PERMS_TRIGGER

the characteristic of the device are readable & triggerable

PAR_PERMS_WRITE_TRIGGER = PAR_PERMS_WRITE | PAR_PERMS_TRIGGER

the characteristic of the device are writable & triggerable

PAR_PERMS_READ_WRITE_TRIGGER = PAR_PERMS_READ_WRITE | PAR_PERMS_TRIGGER

the characteristic of the device are readable & writable & triggerable

Functions

esp_err_t mbc_slave_init_tcp(void **handler)

Initialize Modbus Slave controller and stack for TCP port.

Return

  • ESP_OK Success

  • ESP_ERR_NO_MEM Parameter error

  • ESP_ERR_NOT_SUPPORTED Port type not supported

  • ESP_ERR_INVALID_STATE Initialization failure

Parameters
  • [out] handler: handler(pointer) to master data structure

esp_err_t mbc_slave_init(mb_port_type_t port_type, void **handler)

Initialize Modbus Slave controller and stack for Serial port.

Return

  • ESP_OK Success

  • ESP_ERR_NO_MEM Parameter error

  • ESP_ERR_NOT_SUPPORTED Port type not supported

  • ESP_ERR_INVALID_STATE Initialization failure

Parameters
  • [out] handler: handler(pointer) to master data structure

  • [in] port_type: the type of port

void mbc_slave_init_iface(void *handler)

Initialize Modbus Slave controller interface handle.

Parameters
  • [in] handler: - pointer to slave interface data structure

esp_err_t mbc_slave_destroy(void)

Destroy Modbus controller and stack.

Return

  • ESP_OK Success

  • ESP_ERR_INVALID_STATE Parameter error

esp_err_t mbc_slave_start(void)

Start Modbus communication stack.

Return

  • ESP_OK Success

  • ESP_ERR_INVALID_ARG Modbus stack start error

esp_err_t mbc_slave_setup(void *comm_info)

Set Modbus communication parameters for the controller.

Return

  • ESP_OK Success

  • ESP_ERR_INVALID_ARG Incorrect parameter data

Parameters
  • comm_info: Communication parameters structure.

mb_event_group_t mbc_slave_check_event(mb_event_group_t group)

Wait for specific event on parameter change.

Return

  • mb_event_group_t event bits triggered

Parameters
  • group: Group event bit mask to wait for change

esp_err_t mbc_slave_get_param_info(mb_param_info_t *reg_info, uint32_t timeout)

Get parameter information.

Return

  • ESP_OK Success

  • ESP_ERR_TIMEOUT Can not get data from parameter queue or queue overflow

Parameters
  • [out] reg_info: parameter info structure

  • timeout: Timeout in milliseconds to read information from parameter queue

esp_err_t mbc_slave_set_descriptor(mb_register_area_descriptor_t descr_data)

Set Modbus area descriptor.

Return

  • ESP_OK: The appropriate descriptor is set

  • ESP_ERR_INVALID_ARG: The argument is incorrect

Parameters
  • descr_data: Modbus registers area descriptor structure

Structures

struct mb_param_info_t

Parameter access event information type.

Public Members

uint32_t time_stamp

Timestamp of Modbus Event (uS)

uint16_t mb_offset

Modbus register offset

mb_event_group_t type

Modbus event type

uint8_t *address

Modbus data storage address

size_t size

Modbus event register size (number of registers)

struct mb_register_area_descriptor_t

Parameter storage area descriptor.

Public Members

uint16_t start_offset

Modbus start address for area descriptor

mb_param_type_t type

Type of storage area descriptor

void *address

Instance address for storage area descriptor

size_t size

Instance size for area descriptor (bytes)

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